The Great Indian civilization overtook the total slave system in ancient social transitional phases in the Indian society by jumping out the slave system of Greeks, Babylonians and Europeans as a different way of Marxism, in India
Without going into the different controversies on the period of Manu, on whose name, the Manu code of laws, in India is well known and it has been established its credibility as well as notoriety from the history of its translation , and having no reason to raise any question in mind in setting aside of its applicability by many political parties and finding no fault on rejection of Vishva Hindu Parishad in India during the life time of dr. Baba sahib Ambedkar, whose Manu dahan divas, 25 December 1927 was celebrated by Dalits ,and feeling no happiness over distancing vhp from owning Manusmriti by the Vishva Hindu Parishad in 2006. Manu smriti have its total verses, 2685, In which only verses 1214 are authentic as claimed by Sri Surendra Nath. Here no attempt could be made in any form either to invite any controversies on declarations here on such verses for interpolations or in supporting the remaining the other verses of 1471 in the Manu Code of Laws.
.Manu Smriti, has been translated by Mr. G. Buhler as’ laws of Manu’ he had an opinion about its composition that it is made in1500 B.C and it is one of the eighteen Smritis. .Most of Hindu organizations in its web sites claims that its composition period was 200 C.E in India. Though the periods may different upon its composition, Manu, who has composed Manu Code of Laws with his identification, noting the very existence of surrounding territories, rivers, and other social classes at that time. He is known as law giver of the Indian civilization with all rules he set according to his own way in differentiating every human being with the categorization of others by following the set of rules from the birth to death with all ceremonies and sacrifices for all the people of his fold what he aspired from the people as Brahman, Kshtriya, Kaisya, and Sudra who claimed Sudras to serve these three cast’s people as their occupation authoritatively in the 1st of 91st verse
One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra to serve meekly even these (other) three castes’.
Dr. Ambedkar was very much particular about the untouchables during the freedom struggle under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Both were already set their different agendas in the independence struggle. The agitations they led in different ways as their thoughts were in the sense and spirit on each others’ diversified causes at that time of freedom movement, The communist party of India, under the influence of the Stalin, took a separate way against the Gandhiji’s way in India in line of keeping the coalition forces in the global level against the Hitler
Dr Ambedkar was known for his capabilities in presenting the issues before the people and his writings were still influential and inspirational to the Dalits and downtrodden from that period to present day. Unfortunately his writings and his capabilities were not recognized by all sections of the society as he has stood in his entire life for the Dalit causes which were known in the sacred Hindu texts as Sudras in the Manu Smriti and all the right wing including leftist writers in India has the same mind set in writing the history and giving the impression of European style of social transformations to the Indian history from their own point of view. The origin, and meaning, with its applications to the people for the identities what the Rig Veda was referred to are still not yet confirmed by the concerned with its subject such as ‘Dasa’, ‘Dasyu’, and the Aryans
The very next sacred text ‘Manu code of laws’ which is regarded as the next text to sacred Vedas and its authenticity could be verified within the purview of all four Vedas as the next to all Vedas. And it has the limitation to take the code of laws of Manu, into consideration within the contradiction between Vedas and the Smritis, It is decided to finalize that the Vedas version first to take into consideration by rejecting the Smritis version against Vedas before arriving to any conclusions. Analytical way within two different identities were once treated as the progressive methodology in finding out the factors from the history, was followed by all most all the historians in finding the rights from the wrongs from the ancient history and collecting the wrongs from the rightists parties are the duties of the rightist parties in India. Representing the race, clan, or religion within the limit of Indian social fabric in India was and is the common factor as it has taken the shape of universal need of all the active players in their respective fields in certain times on few subjects only. The laws of Manu, covered all phases of the human being and all the members of the society, and he wanted to follow the rules what he proposed before them. Here the point only is to bring out the definition and applicability of the word, Manu used in his all the laws referred ‘slaves’,’ male slaves’, ‘and female slaves’ only in his code of laws of Manu in Indian civilization.
Where as the definition with its applications of the words ‘slave’ and ‘female slave’ from the context of the Hammurabi code of laws to the code of laws of Manu have analyzed comparatively with more inspirational zeal than applicability of the ‘great leap forward’ in identifying the small elements within the sphere of the available contradictions by jumping out in a lead as well in advance to the developments of the Greek, Egyptian, Babylonian, Sumerian, Acadian, European, roman, British and American civilizations. The Aristotle, and Plato, was the philosophers who supported the slavery as they were engaged in finding the definitions of the whole society of the globe with practicalities in the limited cities of Athens and Sparta
In the old testament of the Bible which was supported the slavery and its predominant slave system of that society at that time was supported as we all are aware about it.
Hammurabi code of laws, which is the world’s first code of laws, composed by the king himself and it was composed in the year 1780 B.C. The Hammurabi Code of Laws was enacted by the 6th Babylonian king. This code was founded in 1901, by Egyptologist, Gustov Jaquir. It has been translated George Buhler, there are 282 laws including missing portions of the code from sl no 66 to 99. The no of missed laws are 34. All clarification by using the brackets in both laws was the work of the writers of subjects in the source what it has been taken here in this article.
Following laws are with reference to the word ‘slave’ and its relevancy in all the subjects wherever it has its relation with other people during the transactions of the society at that time. The king Hammurabi was well known to the world and renowned one for the codification of the royal duties in Babylonian territory for next generations. To verify the very nature of Babylonian’s social structure in comparison with the very same first codification of the laws in India by Manu and it has been known as the Code of Laws of Manu. Codifications of the laws are always helpful in understanding the very structural nature of the societies of that time
The time of both code of laws have a greater gap between the two societies, at least there is a gap of 1500 to 1650 years. The slavery and its origin and growth are well known by ll those who are interested in such studies. It is also a question just why the Indian social transformation was not taken place in the similar line of all other ancient societies from the Egyptian pharaohs’ societies to, if I say even back from the period of domestication of animals to forming a civilizations in Babylonians, to the present European, roman and British in which all the social transformations were the same as Karl Marx described in his communist manifesto
.There is a gap in the Indian history. And it has the blanks in its own history. So that the spirituality and mythology of a particular, right wing is in aggressive way of owning the whole history in accordance with their mythological subjects for their political reasons.. There is a gap in resuming a leading roll in bringing out the evidences to the world as an official and in recognized form of archeological supports. At the same time the left wing historian’s orientations were in same of British who have done a lot before leaving India in almost in historical works of religious books from Sanskrit to English. Before taking any role in writing the real historical issues with Indian subject in exact way by the right historian, the rightist were in their lead with all subjects without archaeological evidences on the subjects.
So here is the way available, through which a comparative analysis could be carried out for the understanding of the social transformation with its active players towards progress and prosperity. Here are some laws to understand the slave societies’ rules and its related actions on violations of the social laws at that time through the comparison of Manu code of laws. Following is the seventh law in The Code of Laws of Hammurabi, in which the slave with gold, or silver, by the way of contract compared, in presence of witness for the sale process between the buyer and offered
7) ‘If anyone buy from the son or a slave of another man, without witness or a contract silver or a gold, a male or a female slave or an ox or a sheep or any thing or if he take
It in charge, he is considered as a thief and shall be put to death’.
In the 3rd chapter of Manu Smriti, the first time the word ‘slave’ is taken place referring the direct verse to somebody who inspires no terror, which is as followed
9) “Nor one named after a constellation, a tree or a river, nor one bearing the name of low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after bird or a snake, or a slave nor whose name inspires terror”
In the 4th chapter of code of laws of Manu referred the word slave and instructed not to quarrel with his, mother father, brother son, wife, with daughters for his own reasons. Following is the 180th verse of the fourth chapter of the Code of Laws of Manu.
180) ‘with his father and his mother, with female relatives, with brother, with his son, and wife with his daughter, with his slaves, let him not have quarrels’. Here in the law, the role of witness was compulsory and the trading rule was treated as a contract between the two parties. And the relief also available to any party aggrieved on violation with a punishment of death. In its rule the parties and other commodities were compared with the slave and the slave also treated as a commodity in that society.
Here are the two laws for comparing the basic difference between the two Codes of Laws
15) ‘If any one takes a male or female slave of a court, or male or female of freedman, outside the city gates he shall put to death’.
16) ‘if any one receive into his house runaway male or female slave of the court, or of a freeman, and does not .bring it out at the public proclamation of the major domus, the master of the house shall be put to death’. In this law the male slave or .female slave if they were not brought out after receiving them from anybody he was to face action. He should handover them in public. If he failed in obeying the rule the punishment was death in that society. A basic moral responsibility of a free man was to return the slave like an instrument in that society to perform his work through its usage in his custody. This kind of slave rules the Manu did not compose in his entire code of laws. The following rule was in disclosing the identification of his status as a slave with a tag to his identity with his master was a subject of compulsory rule to resume in the open market of the slaves and its slave society
Here is the law given below.
18)’ If a slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring him to the palace; a further investigation must follow and the slave be returned to his master’.
In another rule the community level transactions were common and sanction of both social and statutory sanctions were allowed as a system in that society and all that had its sanctions on its entirety till completion of the whole transaction of the business
Another law from the code Hammurabi, which is followed
.32) ‘if a chieftain or a man is captured on the ‘way of the king’ (in war) and a merchant buy him free, and bring back to his place, if he have the means in his house to buy his freedom, he shall buy himself free, if he have nothing in his house with which to buy himself free shall be brought free by temple of his community, if there is nothing in the temple with which to buy him free, the court shall buy freedom. His field, garden, and house shall not be given for the purchase of his freedom’
Here is the cost to be paid by him or on behalf of temple of his community to buy his freedom to get back to the status of free man as he had earlier. The slave has to pay back from him or from his community as he has the value like a commodity in that society whereas the ancient Indian society which has not set so in depth rules about the slavery and its slave system like a Babylonians one.
How anyone had turned to the status of the slave from level of free man, who had failed to pay the debt, is given below.
117)’if anyone fail to meet a claim for debt, and sell himself, his wife, his son and daughter for money or give them away to forced labor, they shall work for three years in the house of man who bought them, or the proprietor, and in the fourth year they shall be set free.’ In this law the time for slave also fixed for getting freeness, from the labor in the buyers house. Where as the laws of Manu did not have any idea about the business rules of the slaves and punishments. So the Indian society at that has not seen any slave’s trading rule s with its whole process by the parties concerned. Manu has no idea about its origin and he did not see such necessity to frame the rules on nonexistent slave system at that time.. And there were no such physical conditions in Indian society, in the absence of which the rules of the mechanism of the slave system in India could not arise to frame and impose on the people by Manu.
In the following verse of the 4th chapter, the Manu, who sought the voluntary and without discontentment of the person’s service to serve without any force as Manu sought for from all the people of his fold. The relevant verse, which is given below, refers the tenderness who offered him to follow like a shadow to which he offered himself.
185)’one’s slaves as ones shadows, one’s daughter as the highest object of tenderness ,hence one is offended by anyone of these, one must bear it without resentment’
Here in his another verse in the same 4th chapter, the law giver Manu, declared on the difference between the words ‘Sudra’ and the ‘slave’, who were different from each other in resuming their duties what they have been entrusted by the ancestors, which is as followed, as per Manu,
253)’his labor in tillage, a friend of his family, his cow-herd, his slave and his barber are among Sudras those whose food he may eat, like wise (a poor man )who offers himself to be his slave’.
In the 8th chapter, the related verse,
in which Manu have treated a slave as the same wrong doer by including the slave with nearest relations, in punishment for all those were punishable, is as followed
299)‘a wife, as on, a slave a people, and a younger brother of full blood, who have committed a faults, may be beaten with a rope or a split of bamboo’
The following verse in the same chapter, which ,imposed small fine on converse with a female slave( of his master) as it has an another sense in imposing a fine on who had a converse with female slave(of his master) by Manu what the following verses give a meaning which are as fallows.
363) ‘yet he who secretly converse with such woman or with female slaves kept by one (master0 and with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a small fine’
Manu declared seven kinds of slaves in following verses.
415)‘these are slaves of seven kinds (viz) he who made a captive under a standard, he who made serves for his daily food, he who is born in the house, he who is bought and he who is not given, he who is inherited from the ancestors, and he who is enslaved by way of punishment’
In the similar way Manu had declared in another verse of the same chapter, Manu clarified on the way of punishments to the wrong doers including a slave with the blood relations with equal treatment, which is as follows, as he found no difference of blood relations and a slave,
416) ‘A wife, and a slave, these three are declared to have no property, the wealth which earn is (acquired) for him to whom they belong’
Similarly Manu has told in the same to tune to a wife also who do not have a property like a slave. Still he has not mentioned any rule of buyers and purchasers of the slaves and no rules he had imposed on any people of the four castes. If there was market like a commodity of the slaves. He could have definitely told and aspire to have the acted on their way of living in the society including the lowest cast Sudras. Here is one more verse which is related to the word “buys” in other reference.
174) ‘if a man buys a (boy) whether equal or unequal (in good qualities) from his father for the sake of having a son, that child is called a (son) bought Kritaka’. Son bought from a father and a boy was called a son there too unlike a slave. A boy where he was grown and sold out for some pretty amount and the new father also had to grow the boy he bought, as a father only. So this kind of the change of a house to live like a son from one father to another father do not attract the exact rules of the slaves and its system in the Greece, Egypt, Babylonian and other civilizations at that time. In another verse Manu had cleared the rule of inheritance with a reference of Sudra and slave about the shares in the property, which is followed
179) ‘a son who is begotten by a Sudra on a female slave, or on the female slave of his slave may, if permitted (by his father) take a share (of the inheritance): thus the law is settled’.
In a general condition of the market of the slaves where the individuals who did not have any property or assets for the livelihood and sells themselves on a condition of offering physical labor to their masters and the same slaves do not have source to maintain the other slave in their lives. But here in Manu who had told about the slave of the slave to share the movable or immovable properties of that time. This is quite opposite version that cannot be believed in the laws of Manu. His own and contradicting version is with the rulers of the slavery in slave systems of the world civilizations if really Manu said.. Here I suspect these verses may be inserted into the code of laws of Manu.
In the 10th chapter the words ‘Dasa’ and ‘slave’ mentioned in its verse differentiating each other on the basis of the service and nature of the work they have been assigned at that time, which is as follows.
32) ‘A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava(woman) a Sairrandhra who is skilled in adorning by attending his (master)who though not a slave lives like a slave, or subsists by snaring animals’.
Here above Manu had claimed the difference between Dasyu and a slave on the duties they assigned differing the conditions of the slavery and its slave system of other parts of the world. In another verse Manu clarified by the word Dasa who subsists on the earning of the boats man who inhibits in the place what he called Aryavartha.
34) “A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsist by working as boats (and) whom the inhabitants of Aryavartha call Kaivartha”.
Manu had clarified about the nature of duties of the people they have been assigned to them with identification of the linage of the present Andhra race’s origin which is now turned as a region who wants to continue the same under the title of united Andhra in Andhra Pradesh so as to continue the same exploitation of Telangana region in India. Here the verse is as follows.
36)’ From a Nishada, spring by a woman of the (Vaideha caste) a Karavana who works in leather and from a Vaideha (by woman of the Karavaga and Nishada castes) an Andhra and Meda who dwell outside the village’
. In the declarations of Manu the entire rural artisans he addressed with such a system he set out to follow very differently and purely basing on the lines of his thoughts, Manu did not leave anybody in declaring all those who were out of his fold by declaring Dasyus, Dasyu ,Shudra, etc, whatever the language they speaks.
45) “all those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from mouth, the arms, the thighs and the fact of a Brahman are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the Mlekkahs(barbarians)” the serious declarations about non-brahminical castes have the history of protests against this code and its law giver Manu in India. And off course no one would agree with such derogatory remarks on the origin and branding them to keep them out from the main fold of Indian society.
Manu further clarified his view what he had in his mind about those who were engaged on wage basis in the rural artisan’s professions which are as followed
116) ‘learning mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, traffic, agriculture, entertainment,(with little) alms, a receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of subsistence permitted to all men in times of distress’
.It is clarified that he had knowledge a lot on the conditions of that society where the rates and hours for those slaves he did not fix and no punishment were even indicated about such trading. In another verse, Manu asked Sudra to serve Brhamanas for their subsistence, which is given below.
121)’ if a Sudra (unable to subsist by serving Brahmana ) seek livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya’.
The word female slave Manu was used to follow the rule what he said to the people after attending the funeral of her own in the following verse,
184)’ a female slave, shall upset with her foot filled with water, as if it were for a dead person, his (Sapindas) as well as Sammanodakas, shall be impure for a day and night’. whereas all these verses he composed in his code of laws for whole society instructing all castes’ people including Sudras to follow the rules from the date of birth of a new child to the death of old by performing rituals and ceremonies with five kinds of sacrifices, he did not mention the working hours, in detailed manner whether year or daily basis to the workers and other professionals in the society to hire or to purchase the slave trade. he entrusted all the duties to the kings in their routine business of kingship regularly in India in his code of laws.
In the Hammurabi Code of Laws, there was of system of marking on the slave as a slave for sale or the save is not for sale through which the identification of slave could be made with the right of ownership on the slave, here are the laws.
223)’if he here slave, his owner shall pay the physician two shekels’.
226) ‘if a barber, without the knowledge of his master, cut the sign of a slave, on the slave not to be sold, the hands of this barber shall be cut off’.
227)” if anyone deceive a barber, and have him mark a slave not for sale with the sign of slave; he shall be put to death, and buried on his house. The barber shall swear” I did not mark him wittingly and shall be guiltless”.
In a comparison of these two Codes of Laws with each other the Hammurabi Code of Laws were composed by the king of that time as his society and his state have the social laws on slavery so that the laws were framed and got implemented there. In Indian society in early period of Vedic society and the later period of Manu who composed these laws the following laws are in support of the Babylonian’s in-depth slave system was in existence there unlike Indian societies’ composition of classes of that time
118) ‘if a male or female slave away from forced labor and the merchant sublease them or sell them for money no objection can be raised’.
129)’ if a man’s wife be surprised (flagrante delicto) with another man, both shall be tied and thrown into the water, but the husband may pardon his wife and the king his slaves’.
134)’ if anyone be captured in war and there is not sustenance in his house, if then his wife go to another house this women shall be held blameless’.
these laws have complete clarifications on its subjects that the state, society and all classes have the social sanctions in each and every ones roles in the society and they have rights and duties to resume there and the community leadership and the state has the responsibility of all sections of the society to run in an organized manner under the control of the kings’ rule, at that time. But in India in the light of rig Vedic and post rig Vedic societies have not seen such kind of mechanism within the society as a need of each other to enter into the slave system. So that the laws about slave subjects and its slave factors were not raised there before any law givers or before any kings of ancient time in India. So it is cleared that the great Indian and righteous civilizations with its own diversities it was over took with a ‘great leap forward’ in Indian model continuing and leading towards progress and prosperity. It is clarified that the Indian ancient civilization was the different way of its model of transformation from time to time since its origin in Indian soils.
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